By Alan Tootill, David Barrow
Computing device code is the language of the processor on the center of your desktop procedure. not like many different books on laptop code, this publication doesn't systematically clarify the operation of every guide in over the top aspect. in its place, it offers you with easy, comprehensible initiatives in computing which are conducted by way of teams of directions (routines). every one activity is defined, the strategy defined, and enough documentation given so that you can paintings in the course of the exercises and spot the half performed by means of each one guideline.
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Extra info for 6502 Machine Code For Humans
This next routine uses PCHAR but allows for cursor movement to the next line and also for scrolling after displaying at the last character position of the screen. A UTOP - Display PCH at the current cursor position, with automatic CRLF and SCROL Subroutines - PCHAR, CRLF, PSHZM, CADDR, PULZM, PARAM, STTMP, LDTMP, TFRZZ, ADCZZ, CR, CFL and SCROL. Length - 17. Stack - 14. User Stack - 8. AUTOP: PHP PHA LOA CMP PLA JSR BCC JSR AUTND: PLP RTS CCN DCN PCHAR AUTND CRLF ;save the processor ;status and accum.
Restore processor ;status and accum. ;and return 08 48 A5 FO C6 08 38 20 26 68 28 60 23 09 23 10 hi 2E Another routine, CR, is useful in reflecting printer output to the screen, and sets the cursor to the start of the current line, imitating a carriage return. CR - Set the cursor to the start of the current line Subroutines - None. Length - 13. Stack - 2. CR: PHP PHA LOA STA STA STA PLA PLP RTS #0 CCN CCOL CCOH ;save the processor ;status and accum. ;use A to clear the ;character index ;and character ;byte displacement.
With the 6 cycles to jump to the routine, will give a total of 999998. There is no point in worrying about the one or two cycles short of the round million. Counting up cycles like this can give fairly accurate results but not the absolute precision most of us would like. The quartz crystals controlling the 34 6502 Machine Code for Humans clock pulses on most personal computers (that is, all those that we know of) are not absolutely accurate. They have a tolerance, varying with quality, from their rated speed of operation.
6502 Machine Code For Humans by Alan Tootill, David Barrow