By A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov
hemistry is the technological know-how approximately breaking and forming of bonds among atoms. the most vital procedures for natural chemistry is breaking bonds C–H, in addition to C–C in numerous compounds, and essentially, in hydrocarbons. between hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, hexane and so forth. ), are specially beautiful as substrates for chemical changes. this is why, at the one hand, alkanes are the most parts of oil and usual fuel, and accordingly are the relevant feedstocks for chemical undefined. nonetheless, those ingredients are identified to be the fewer reactive natural compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons will be known as the “noble gases of natural chemistry” and, if this is the case, the 1st consultant in their relations – methane – will be in comparison with super inert helium. As in all comparisons, this parallel among noble gases and alkanes isn't totally actual. certainly the changes of alkanes, together with methane, were recognized for a very long time. those reactions contain the interplay with molecular oxygen from air (burning – the most resource of energy!), in addition to a few mutual interconversions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. despite the fact that, a lot of these adjustments ensue at increased temperatures (higher than 300–500 °C) and tend to be characterised by way of a scarcity of selectivity. The conversion of alkanes into carbon dioxide and water in the course of burning is an exceptionally useful approach – yet now not from a chemist viewpoint.
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Extra resources for Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Metal Complexes
1979, 101, 1032. ; Hirobe, M. Heterocycles 1995, 40, 867. CHAPTER II HYDROCARBON TRANSFORMATIONS THAT DO NOT INVOLVE METALS OR THEIR COMPOUNDS n this chapter we will briefly survey the main types of hydrocarbon transformations that occur without the participation of solid metals or oxides and metal complexes. The alkane transformations described here should be taken into consideration for comparison when discussing the metal complex activation. II. 1. T RANSFORMATIONS U NDER THE A CTION OF H EAT OR I RRADIATION Under the action of heat or irradiation, alkanes decompose to produce free radicals which further form stable products.
Soc. 1969, 91, 7166. (c) Garnett, J. ; Hodges, R J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1967, 89, 4546. 19 20 References for Chapter I 10. Gol’dshleger, N. ; Tyabin, M. ; Shilov, A. ; Shteinman, A. A. Zh. Fiz. Khim. 1969, 43, 2174 (in Russian). 11. (a) Gol’dshleger, N. ; Es’kova, V. ; Shilov, A. ; Shteinman, A. A. Zh. Fiz. Khim. 1972, 46, 1353 (in Russian). (b) Rudakov, E. ; Zamashchikov, V. ; Belyaeva, N. ; Rudakova, R. I. Zh. Fiz. Khim. 1973, 47, 2732 (in Russian). (c) Tret’akov, V. ; Arzamaskova, L. ; Ermakov, Yu.
Cracking of higher alkanes gives a wider set of products. For example, pyrolysis of propane (activation energy is 64 kcal yielding ethylene, methane, propene, hydrogen and ethane consists of the following stages: Transformations in the Absence of Metals 23 Plasma reforming of methane can be efficiently used to produce hydrogenrich gas . Methane has also been converted to higher hydrocarbons (including ethylene and acetylene) by a microwave plasma [1f]. Heating induces important transformations not only in alkanes, but also in aromatic hydrocarbons, for example [1g]: 24 CHAPTER II (Refs.
Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Metal Complexes by A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov