By Russell C. Johnson
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Extra resources for Biology of Parasitic Spirochaetes
Hardy and Munro (4) also reported a strain of oral tréponèmes requiring isobutyric acid, presumably Ί\_ macrodentium. We have found that intestinal and some human oral strains require short chain fatty acids. These strains require a pair of fatty acids such as isobutyric and n-valeric acids. This type of organism has some synthetic ability to make their long chain fatty acids for cellular lipids. We have found that the addition of a mixture of short chain acids to serum containing medium does not inhibit growth and usually stimulates growth of both long chain and short chain fatty acid requiring organisms.
The spirochetes vary considerably in their biosynthetic capabilities. It appears that neither the Spirochaeta nor the Treponema can synthesize all the required amino acids and as a result of this, various amino acids must be provided in the culture media. In contrast, the leptospires can synthesize all the necessary amino acids (7,14). The Borrelia probably require amino acids but this requirement has not been firmly established. (Table 3 ) . TABLE 3 Amino Acid and Fatty Leptospira Borrelia Host-Associated Treponema Spirochaeta Acid Requirements of the Spirochetes Amino Acids Not required Some required Fatty Acids Required Required Some required Some required Required Not required The spirochetes also vary in their ability to synthesize fatty acids de novo (Table 3 ) .
Refringens T. denticola T. soy 3* 3 NG PYG 5 12-15 14-15 PPLO 3 5 7-8 HI 2 8 7 HI+ Yeast 2 6 7 HIJ CO? 2 6 2 PYG + HI+CO? 2 5 2 * Average number of days for appearance of colonies in various pre-reduced media containing 10% rabbit serum. HI = heart infusion broth; PYG = peptone, yeast extract; NG = no growth; PPLO = PPLO or mycoplasma broth; HIY = heart infusion broth plus yeast extract; T. soy = trypticase soy agar, phagedenis formed colonies in 2-3 days in pre-reduced trypticase soy serum agar and other media containing heart infusion, while a medium containing peptone and yeast extract required 5 days for colony development.
Biology of Parasitic Spirochaetes by Russell C. Johnson